Construct is mainly designed for 2D games, but it also provides a few features that allow you to add elements of 3D to your games. This tutorial covers the available 3D features and how they work together.
The simplest 3D feature in Construct is Z elevation. This lets you move otherwise 2D objects like Sprites up and down on the Z axis. Increasing the Z elevation will move the object towards the camera, so it appears bigger. Decreasing the Z elevation will move the object away from the camera, so it appears smaller. As the view scrolls around the layout, you'll notice that Z elevated objects also move differently to reflect their 3D position. It's an easy and quick way to move around objects in 3D. The On-rails shooter example is a good demonstration of the creative possibilities of using Z elevation.
Some Piggy sprites using Z elevation to show perspective
You can also change the Z elevation of entire layers. This moves all the objects on the layer up and down on the Z axis. This provides an interesting alternative to parallax, using real depth rather than changing the scroll speed. Placing a series of layers at different Z elevations is a quick way to get an overall 3D appearance in an otherwise 2D game.
Being focused on 2D games, Construct normally refers to scrolling and scale when describing which part of the layout is visible and how big it appears. However the view is actually rendered as a 3D world, with a camera position that determines what is visible.
In Construct, scrolling to a position moves both the camera and the position it looks at to the given X and Y co-ordinates. So scrolling is in fact moving the camera around in 2D.
By default the camera starts at a Z position of 100, and points down to look at a Z position of 0. All the normal 2D content of a layout has a Z position of 0 (unless it uses Z elevation). The camera is set up to ensure that objects 100 pixels away from the camera appear at 100% scale, so everything appears as expected for a 2D game.
Visualization of the camera at a Z position of 100 looking down at a layout with 2D content at a Z position of 0
Moving a sprite to a Z elevation of 50 means it is placed half-way towards the camera, and so appears twice as big. Similarly moving a sprite to a Z elevation of -100 means it is placed twice as far from the camera, and so appears half as big.
In Construct, adjusting the layout or layer scale (or in the editor, zooming in and out) actually moves the camera on the Z axis. For example at 2x scale (or 200% zoom), the camera is actually moved to a Z position of 50. Since the camera is closer to the content by a factor of 2, it appears bigger by a factor of 2. In 2D this does exactly what you expect, and everything scales accordingly. However there is an additional 3D side-effect to this: since the camera is moving on the Z axis, the perspective of 3D features changes accordingly. For example you'll notice Z elevated sprites moving in the view to reflect their position relative to the camera. This means scale/zoom is a true 3D effect in Construct, rather than just stretching everything bigger.
Calculating a camera Z position
The camera Z position for a 2D scale factor can be calculated with
100 / scale. For example if scale is 2, for 2x scale, the camera position is
100 / 2 = 50.
If you wish to set the camera Z position directly, you still have to use the Set layout/layer scale actions based on a 2D scale factor. However you can reverse the calculation and set the scale to
100 / z. For example to set the camera position to 50, you'd set the scale to
100 / 50 = 2.
Due to the way 3D rendering works, the camera has both a minimum and a maximum distance in side which content is visible. If content is either too close to the camera or too far away, it will disappear.
In Construct the minimum distance is 1, and the maximum is 10000. Therefore anything closer than 1 unit away from the camera on the Z axis, or further away than 10000 units away on the Z axis, will not be visible. For example with the default camera position at Z=100, the highest a Sprite will be visible is at a Z elevation of 99. It won't be visible at 99.5, even though that is still in front of the camera (and naturally content behind the camera is not visible). Similarly a Sprite at a Z elevation of -9900 (which is the camera Z position 100 minus the maximum view distance of 10000) will be only just visible, but will completely disappear if any further away.
The vanishing point determines how the perspective appears for 3D features. By default the vanishing point is in the middle of the viewport, meaning as objects move in to the distance, they also appear to move towards the middle of the screen. The vanishing point can be altered via the Vanishing point layout property and the Set layout vanishing point system action. The given position is relative to the viewport, with (0%, 0%) being the top-left corner of the viewport, and (100%, 100%) being the bottom-right corner of the viewport.
Changing the vanishing point can be useful to adapt the 3D perspective to match the style of your game. For example in a 3D platformer, it's useful to move the vanishing point up a little, so the tops of 3D shapes are visible when the player is standing on them (as demonstrated in the 3D platforms example). Alternatively moving the vanishing point to the bottom of the viewport might be useful for providing a more isometric style view, such as to view the faces of buildings if walking around a town made from 3D shape objects.
All 3D features in Construct are cosmetic only - they don't affect how collisions work. Collisions still continue to work as if the object has a Z elevation of 0, i.e. as if it's still 2D. This is just something to bear in mind as you develop games using 3D features. In some cases you might want to disable collisions for objects using 3D features, such as if you want the player to be able to run underneath them.
Construct uses a back-to-front renderer, which means it starts drawing things furthest away from the camera first, and then draws closer content on top. Since the last thing drawn is top of the Z order, it appears on top.
In Construct, Z elevation takes precedence over Z order. In other words, you can't use Bring to front to make something appear on top of something else with a higher Z elevation. The sort order is based on Z elevation first, and then the Z order is only used where multiple objects have the same Z elevation. Another way to think about this is Z order is a 2D feature. In a purely 2D game everything is at the same Z elevation of 0, and so Z ordering solely decides the appearance.
The draw order has an impact on transparency in some circumstances. For more details see the dedicated section on transparency below.
The 3D Shape plugin provides an easy way to add further elements of 3D to your project. You can choose from a range of pre-defined shapes, such as a box, and draw images for each face of the shape. For more comprehensive coverage, refer to the linked manual entry. You can also try out the 3D shape tour example in Construct for an interactive tour.
Example of some 3D shape objects using the 'Box' shape
As with 2D objects, you can use the same Z elevation property to move 3D shapes up and down on the Z axis. The 3D shape object also has a Z height property that determines how tall it is, i.e. its depth. The Z height must be positive - if you want a 3D shape to appear lower down, move its Z elevation down instead. The Z height works in the same units as Z elevation, so a Z height of 25 would be a quarter of the distance to the camera (assuming defaults for everything else).
Due to the way 3D rendering works, transparency may not work as expected in 3D shape objects. To correctly render 3D features, Construct must use a depth buffer, but this only fully supports opaque surfaces. Therefore 3D shape objects will work best with opaque images.
Making individual faces invisible works as expected, as this means the face skips drawing entirely, rather than drawing content that is assumed to be opaque.
Transparency in 3D Shape's images may work in some circumstances, but it depends on Construct's draw order. So long as a 3D shape object using transparency in one of images is drawn after the content visible behind it, the result will appear correct. This is because the transparent content will be drawn on top of the content behind it. However if the 3D shape is drawn before content visible behind it, then the transparent portions of its faces will block rendering of the content drawn afterwards. This is because the transparent parts of its images are filled in to the depth buffer as if they are opaque, and then content meant to appear behind it is assumed to be invisible, so not rendered. As noted in the section on Draw order above, Construct's draw order is back-to-front, starting with the furthest away Z elevation and moving forwards, and using Z order where the Z elevation is the same. Therefore adjusting Z elevation or Z order may be able to work around transparency related issues with 3D shapes.
Illustration of unexpected results with transparency on a side face of a 3D shape object. Left: the Piggy sprite is Z elevated just below the 3D shape, and transparency works as expected as the piggy is drawn first. Right: the Piggy sprite is Z elevated just above the 3D shape, and transparency does not work as expected as the piggy is drawn last.
Note that the draw order ignores the Z height of the 3D shape: the draw order is based only on its Z elevation, which is the position of the base of the object, and then by its Z order. Problems with transparency usually occur when the Z height of a 3D shape extends above content that comes after it in the draw order, i.e. at a higher Z elevation or Z order.
Transparency issues are limited to only 3D shape objects. Z elevation with things like sprites never has any issues with transparency, as they don't have a Z height, and so cannot extend above anything else. It is only with 3D shape objects that you should consider using only opaque images.
Mesh Z elevation
Construct's mesh distortion feature allows you to deform objects by splitting them in to a grid of mesh points that can be independently moved around. You can see this in action in the Mesh distortion example.
In both the mesh editor and at runtime, mesh points can also individually be moved on the Z axis with a Z elevation property. This provides another way to make customised 3D appearances in your project, and could even be used as a limited kind of 3D modelling. For an example of how dynamic mesh Z elevation looks, see the Mesh Z elevation example.
Using 2D layers
Layers are another form of Z ordering. Content on a higher layer normally appears above content on a lower layer. However 3D features can override this. For example a tall 3D shape object can still overlap and cover up content on a higher layer.
In some cases this is unwanted. For example you may want a 2D backdrop image at a Z elevation of 0 to still display behind 3D features that have a lower Z elevation. Alternatively you may wish for the HUD or other user interface controls to appear in front of 3D features that have a higher Z elevation.
In both cases you can solve this by changing the Rendering mode layer property to 2D. This ensures its content is drawn flat in 2D again ignoring the depth of any 3D features. You can see this in action in the example Combining 2D & 3D layers.
Demonstration of the effect of a 2D layer, with text objects on both 2D and 3D layers, illustrating how each overlaps 3D content
Advanced project settings
There are two project settings that can also affect 3D features: the project Rendering mode, and Anisotropic filtering. Normally you don't need to change these, as they both default to Auto which should do what you want. However advanced users may wish to adjust them. For example if you only use 3D features at runtime, such as by adjusting a mesh to use Z elevation during the game, you may wish to force the rendering mode to be 3D. For more information refer to the manual entry covering project properties.
Construct is fundamentally a 2D game engine, but provides a range of features that can add some exciting 3D elements to your games. These range from a simple Z elevation property through to 3D mesh distortion. They all preview in the Layout View, allowing quick experimentation and feedback. Try it out and see what you can do! You can also browse the Start Page for examples tagged 3D for more examples.