I recommend reading the wiki. This is the page explaining the system expressions: scroll down to "Math"
clamp is just one of many functions that are common to most programming languages. The best practice is to read about them, look for descriptions/examples on the net and try for yourself. Then you are aware of them in case you need them.
Math functions you will almost always need somewhere somehow:
sin(), cos(), min(), max(), clamp(), ceil(), floor(), round(), abs(), lerp()