The majority of build time is spent loading the textures in the application. However, if no textures change, Construct uses a cached version of the loaded textures, so it can basically skip that step, and previewing is much faster. You should be able to notice this if you edit an image, then try previewing the application twice - the second time should be faster.
However, if you change an image, all textures are re-loaded. This could be improved, but probably not before Construct 2.