the short answer is yes, it is possible.
the longer answer is that there is a lot going on with that UI and it would be a LOT of work to make something look that good, easy to use, properly handle multi-touch, interact with a server for security and data, graph the data in various ways, etc.
I use C3 to do a lot of database work, and have figured out many of the stumbling blocks so I can help out. But you will need to break it down into smaller tasks and build it bit by bit, and ask specific questions.
one of the hardest parts is making it responsive - adapting to various screen sizes, and handling input because form controls hover over the canvas which means nothing can easily pop up over them. You can make you own input methods, but then you lose copy/paste/spell checking/etc.
I haven't done much with graphs yet, but it is something I plan on doing, and have played around with various types. ROJOhound has done some examples graphing equations. Animating graphs like in the image you linked to raises the difficulty quit a bit.