I looked in to this, and I think it just comes down to the fact macOS on Apple Silicon devices (like the M1) will simply refuse to run unsigned apps. There's the "Open anyway" workaround for Intel devices, but this doesn't work any more with Apple Silicon. So I think there's no shortcuts, you'll just have to properly notarize the app.
I've read ad-hoc signing can get it working locally just for testing, but I haven't been able to get that working yet. Maybe you can figure out how it works. This isn't to do with Construct though, it's just how macOS runs apps.