You can't change Tilemap image on runtime.
What you can do is to make few Tilemaps with different textures and just swap them - they should be exactly the same but with different look/style.
For example if Tilemap1 have tiles:
0 - alien sand
1- alien grass
2- alien rock
then Tilemap2 must have:
0 - desert sand
1 - desert grass
2 - desert rock
So if you swap them they will have same id's on screen but with different image.
Other thing you could do is to make one tilemap with all graphics. Let say tiles id 0 - 16 would be alien planet, and tiles id 20-36 - desert.
Then if you will need to swat texture you need only add 20 to every tile id.