There is this bug here that has a similar issue:
I didn't find others but I recall there being some reported elsewhere. That particular one had no response but the fix as I recall was the behavior was updated with a bigger TOTAL_MEMORY, which just delays the error till more memory is used.
If it helps the non-asm.js version of box2d doesn't have this issue, and you can change it in the project properties.
Best I understand it is asm.js requires the amount of memory needed to be reserved beforehand, and it can't change. Based on ashley's last blog, webassembly would be an improvement on asm.js in that it lets the amount of memory needed to change while the program runs.
Anyway things like changing animation frame, changing size, or adding/removing tiles on the tilemap all cause the physics objects to be updated and I guess that fills up the memory with asm.js?