I tried to post the solution I found yesterday, but apparently I was having trouble loading the forum pages.
The first solution was to try to make collisions through Ray Cast, and after a bit of research, I found the solution in this topic:
(REALLY thanks to Magistross!!! I could not have done the angulation calculation alone.)
The second solution was for a tip to use Physics Behavior in a brazilian community. The collisions worked almost perfectly! The only problem is infinite bounce loops that happen with the ball, but it's not that problematic, I'm trying to solve this.
And the third, actually reason, is that this bug probably happens only in small layouts. Searching for "bounce" in Construct 3 templates, there is an example of Scirra using only Bounce off solids that works perfectly.
My project is set to retro style, and maybe the accuracy of collisions is not that good with frame rate. (I haven't tested it yet)
Anyway, thanks for the help brunopalermo! You would have solved my problem too! It was really causing me a headache xD