As far as I can tell, this has nothing to do with multiplayer specifically.
As mentioned, global layer works the same way.
A global layer is set in a specific layout, contains instances, but for it to work in a consistent manner over the whole project, you need to have the same number of layers (or at least the same layer number) over all the layouts of the project or the instances won't appear/be created in the "non-original" layouts.
In your project, on the host side you are displaying a specific layout (MAP_AREAF_0) which has 6 layers.
But when having a peer joining the host, the peer is displaying a different layout (MAP_TRAINING) that originally only has 2 layers.
The peer layout DOES not have the appropriate layer to spawn/sync an instance on.
From your host, you ask your peer to create instances in a layer that does not exists. Hence the error your encountered.
Syncing is just there to transmit infos from an instance to another from a computer to another. But if the instance does not logically exists, it cannot be synced.
And for it to exist, it requires the same number of layers.
Nevertheless, you still need to make a proper report as asked by Ashley.