I solved the problem on my own but still decided to write about it.
Preview worked flawlessly in any browser but export crashed every time. Happened after r187. Thought I've lost another big project but came to mind - What if I start deleting stuff? I started with huge chunks like completely removing plugins, behaviors, effects, sounds, music... when I deleted most of the sprites, C2 suddenly exported the whole project without a hitch! After deleting smaller numbers of sprites I found one defective sprite. Fun thing it's not defective at all - nicely proportioned 512x1024 sprite without any behaviors or effects at all. After removing a few pixels by cropping my project can freely export again!
I just wonder what could it be?
I knew I couldn't post this topic in bugs section because you need a small capx replicating the problem. Problem is - every other project works fine. And all platforms affected - I tried all exports.
I posted this topic in thoughts it may actually give Scirra team some possibly valuable info so they could further improve Construct2. And it could help some users who have problems with some particular platforms.
To users: this is probably another reason why it's better to use only power of two textures! I made a huge mistake using non power of two animations for most sprites!